Eminent domain (United States, the Philippines), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (South Africa, Canada, Brazil) is the power of a state or a national government to take private property for public use. However, it can be legislatively delegated by the state to municipalities, government subdivisions, or even to private persons or corporations, when they are authorized to exercise the functions of public character.
The property may be taken either for government use or by delegation to third parties, who will devote it to public or civic use or, in some cases, to economic development. The most common uses of property taken by eminent domain are for government buildings and other facilities, public utilities, highways, and railroads. However, it may also be taken for reasons of public safety, as in the case of Centralia, Pennsylvania. Some jurisdictions require that the condemnor make an offer to purchase the subject property, before resorting to the use of eminent domain.
Originally called OPtion, it, along with Sound Choice, were the dual successors to the earlier music magazine OP, published by John Foster and the Lost Music Network and known for its diverse scope and the role it played in providing publicity to DIY musicians in the midst of the cassette culture. When Foster ended OP after only twenty-six issues, he held a conference, offering the magazine's resources to parties interested in carrying on; attendant journalist David Ciaffardini went on to start Sound Choice, while Scott Becker, alongside Richie Unterberger, founded Option. Whereas Sound Choice was described as a low-budget and "chaotic" publication in spirit, Option was characterized as a "profit making operation" right at the start, meant to compete with the newly founded Spin.
The magazine began as a small press publication, described by the New Music Periodicals review of the Music Library Association as "encompassing rock, jazz, classical, and electronic forms".The New York Times noted its dedication to coverage of indie music releases, with each issue containing "hundreds" of reviews: "not all rock by any means, but it's hard to imagine the existence of Option before punk rock." The magazine used 40-50 unpaid reviewers at a time, few of whom were professional critics.
An option, when purchasing aircraft, allows an airline to purchase additional aircraft in the future at an agreed price and date.
When placing orders for new aircraft, airlines commonly obtain options from the aircraft manufacturer. These options allow the airline to delay the purchase of additional aircraft until market conditions become clearer and the purchase can be justified. It also reserves the airline a place in the manufacturing queue, for a guaranteed delivery slot. When the airline finally exercises its options, it can place its order without having to join the end of the queue which otherwise may delay the delivery of the aircraft for years. If future conditions do not justify expansion of the airline's fleet, the airline is not obliged to purchase the aircraft. An example of this is of an airline purchasing 30 planes up front and having options for an additional 20 for later delivery.
Depending on economic conditions, manufacturers often sell aircraft purchasing options below either the real or Aircraft Bluebook value of the aircraft.